1 explain how cells specialize to

Rudolph Virchow Web Activity If you would like to have an outside link to assist you in studying the material in this chapter, try The Biology Project at http:

1 explain how cells specialize to

What are stem cells? Stem cells are the cells that have an ability to become various types of cells.

1 explain how cells specialize to

They are present both during embryonic 1 explain how cells specialize to embryonic stem cells and in the adult body adult stem cells. Stem cells have unique properties that other cells do not have. First, to understand what stem cells are, you need to understand how humans and other mammals develop: Sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a single cell called a zygote.

These cells are called totipotent and have the ability to develop into a new organism. The zygote repeats the process of mitosis for about 5 or 6 days creating a small ball of a few hundred cells called a blastocyst. The blastocyst has an outer-layer of cells called the trophoblast, which will eventually form the protective placenta.

Inside the trophoblast is a group of cells called the inner cell mass. At this point embryonic stem cells have the ability to become a cell for any part of the body nerve, muscle, blood, etc. This ability to become any type of cell in the body is called pluripotent.

The difference between totipotent and pluripotent cells is only that totipotent cells can give rise to both the placenta and the embryo. As the embryo grows these pluripotent cells develop into specialized, multipotent stem cells.

Multipotent stem cells have the ability to develop specific types of cells terminally differentiated cells. For example a blood stem cell multipotent can develop into a red blood cell, white blood cell or platelets all specialized cells.

There are multipotent stem cells for all of the different types of tissue in the body. For humans, the embryo is defined as the implantation of fertilized egg in the uterus through the eighth week of its development. The embryo will be called a fetus after the eighth week until birth.

Stem Cells are different from other cells because: They can continue to divide for long periods of time: Most cells such as skin cells cannot replicate themselves after a certain period of time.

Stem cells are self-sustaining by replicating themselves for a much longer period of time. Specialized cells have specific capabilities that allow them to perform certain tasks. For example a red blood cell contains hemoglobin that allows it to carry oxygen.

Stem cells have unspecialized capability and do not have tissue- specific structures to perform specialized functions. They can give rise to specialized cells: Stem cells go through a process called differentiation and create special types of cells muscle, nerve, skin, etc.

Embryonic stem cells Embryonic stem cells are the cells within the protective layer of the blastocyst. They are pluripotent, which means they can develop into any of the cells of the adult body. Researchers believe that, because they are pluripotent, and easy to grow, they have the best potential for replacing damaged or lost tissue or body parts.

Adult stem cells Also known as progenitor cells or somatic stem cells, adult stem cells are located, in small quantities, throughout the body and generate specialized cells for the area they are located. These cells do not renew themselves as well as embryonic stem cells.

Still, if these cells are put in a different environment, they may produce a different type of cells from the originating cell. Stem cell research is an active area of inquiry and scientists are discovering new characteristics of stem cells every day.

For example, recent research indicated that multipotent stem cells from one type of tissue blood might actually have the ability to generate cells for a different type of tissue nerve.

Scientists are continuing to search for new sources of adult stem cells. Some of the locations where stem cells have been located include: Some adult stem cells, which have already been used to treat illnesses, include hematopoietic stem cells and umbilical cord blood stem cells.

Hematopoietic stem cells are located in the bone marrow and form blood cells. They have been successfully used to treat blood disorders for younger patients.

Umbilical cord blood stem cells are located in the blood of the umbilical cord after birth. Umbilical cord stem cells are similar to hematopeitetic stem cells in adults, but they are less mature and have much more potential to differentiate into various types of cells.Anatomy and Physiology Tissue Article Questions by Andre Barris 1.

Explain how cells specialize to form specific tissue and organs. Cells specialize through birth when the embryonic stem cells take in different proteins that make them either be epithelial, muscle, connective, or nervous tissue.

Tissues By: Geordalmys Alvarez 1. Explain how cells specialize to form specific tissue and organs. Cells have the ability to specialize and to form specific tissues and organs because all cells alike or not are made up of the same deoxyribonucleic acids.

1. Explain how cells specialize to form specific tissue and organs. To specialize the cells to form a specific tissue and organ you need the right balance of temperature, pH hormones, and more. To make sure the tissues and organs can function you must expose them to forces they would normally experience inside the body.

They need to experience pulses of pressure to simulate blood flow. Nov 13,  · c) Explain how the structures that are unique to plant cells help a cactus survive a harsh desert climate. (1 point) The spines of cacti grow from specialized structures called areoles they are accustomed to it. The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.

The acquired immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. What is important to remember about meiosis?

Cell Division - Mitosis and Meiosis | Ask A Biologist Cell membrane and membrane-bound organelles Subcellular components All cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotichave a membrane that envelops the cell, regulates what moves in and out selectively permeableand maintains the electric potential of the cell.
Report Abuse Cell specialization is when cells specialize in certain duties, such as when blood cells carry nutrients, skin cells protect the interior of the body.
Explain how cells specialize to form specific tissue and organs? | Yahoo Answers Full Answer Skin, muscle and organ cells are all examples of specialized animal cells. These cells have specific functions that help the organism survive and live.
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In meiosis, each new cell contains a unique set of genetic information.

Cellular organelles and structure (article) | Khan Academy