The Symbolic Life Editor's Preface The mission of the National Clearinghouse for Mental Health information is to provide effective dissemination of mental health information by all appropriate means and to all appropriate people. In carrying out its mission, the Clearinghouse attempts to remain eclectic, and thus presents information from various schools of philosophy in order to inform its audience of the diversity of thought in the mental health field.
Research has shown their risk of developing these cancers is 35 times higher than in individuals who neither smoke nor drink.
This evidence may suggest that there is a cocarcinogenic interaction between alcohol and tobacco-related carcinogens. This is explained by the fact that ethanol is a proven mutagen and in addition, metabolite of ethanol acetaldehyde produced in the liver is highly carcinogenic, thus explaining both local mouth, throat, esophageal cancers as well as distant skin, liver, breast cancers.
It is well known that ethanol causes cell death at the concentrations present in alcoholic beverages. But recent evidence suggests that the cytotoxic effect of ethanol on the cells lining the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus activates the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers of the mucosa to replace the dead cells.
Every time stem cells divide, they become exposed to unavoidable errors associated with cell division e. Alcohol consumption probably increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus by promoting the accumulation of cell divisions in the stem cells that maintain these tissues in homeostasis.
Because the cytotoxic activity of ethanol is concentration-dependent, the risk of these cancers will not only increase with increasing amounts of ethanol, but also with increasing concentrations; an ounce of whisky is probably more carcinogenic when taken undiluted than when taken mixed with non-alcoholic beverages.
The local cytotoxic effect of ethanol may also explain the known synergistic effect of alcohol and tobacco use on the risk of these cancers. Several European studies have linked the inherited hepatic porphyrias with a predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma. Typical risk factors for HCC need not be present with the acute hepatic porphyrias, specifically acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria.
Porphyria cutanea tarda is also associated with HCC, but with typical risk factors including evidence of hepatotropic viruses, hemochromatosis and alcoholic cirrhosis. Tyrosinemia Type I, an inherited disorder in tyrosine metabolism impacting the second enzyme in the heme metabolic pathway is associated with a high risk of developing HCC in younger populations, including children.
Oral cancerEsophageal cancerHead and neck cancerand Laryngeal cancer Endoscopic image of patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma seen at gastro-esophageal junction. Alcohol consumption at any quantity is a risk factor for cancers of the mouthesophaguspharynx and larynx.
A drink is defined as 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1. Heavy alcohol drinking is defined as having more than three drinks on any day or more than seven drinks per week for women and more than four drinks on any day or more than 14 drinks per week for men.
The risk of esophageal cancer nearly doubled in the first two years following alcohol cessation, a sharp increase that may be due to the fact that some people only stop drinking when they are already experiencing disease symptoms.
However, risk then decreased rapidly and significantly after longer periods of abstention. Risk of head and neck cancer only reduced significantly after 10 years of cessation. After more than 20 years of alcohol cessation, the risks for both cancers were similar to those seen in people who never drank alcohol.
The incidence of cancers of the esophagus and larynx increase by 0. Alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer in women. Further, consumption of alcohol at any quantity is associated with significantly increased risk of relapse in breast cancer survivors.
Colorectal cancer Colectomy specimen containing an invasive colorectal carcinoma the crater-like, reddish, irregularly-shaped tumor. Drinking may be a cause of earlier onset of colorectal cancer.
Liver cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma in an individual that was hepatitis C positive. Alcohol is a risk factor for liver cancer, through cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is a disease that develops when liver cells are replaced with scar tissue after damage from alcohol abuse, …"  The NIAAA reports that "Prolonged, heavy drinking has been associated in many cases with primary liver cancer.
A study concluded that for every additional drink regularly consumed per day, the incidence of liver cancer increases by 0. Lung cancer Alcohol intake of more than 2 drinks per day is associated with a small increased risk of lung cancer.Parental norms have only modest impact on students once they enter college beyond the residual effects of previously instilled drinking attitudes and religious traditions.
項目 來源 資料夾 年度 參考類別 作者 標題 次標題 會議名稱 會議地點 出版地區 學術部門 大學 學位 諮詢人 檔案號碼. Start studying PrepU Ch. 36 Pediatric Clients. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. From Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy by Christine A.
Courtois. Chapter 3 – Dynamics of Abuse and the Incestuous Family. page The "normal-appearing" family, as the name implies, is just that. From the outside, the family appears to be solid and well-functioning. The approach considers both quantity and frequency of consumption as defining characteristics of binge drinking.
The review is organized into three sections: (1) Issues underlying the concept of binge drinking are outlined; (2) the relationship of alcohol consumption to binge drinking is highlighted; (3) binge drinking and its cognitive, physiological, and withdrawal effects are examined, with the influence of alcoholism, .
Abstract. The enormous public health impact of adolescent substance use and its preventable morbidity and mortality highlight the need for the health care sector, including pediatricians and the medical home, to increase its capacity regarding adolescent substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT).