Professional Learning Background Essay on Late 19th and Early 20th Century Immigration This summary of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century immigration describes the "new immigration" that originated from Southern and Eastern Europe. The essay also outlines American responses to the new wave of immigration, including some of the laws designed to restrict immigration that were adopted between and
Posted on August 31, by energyskeptic Alice Friedemann. Last update Oct 23,first [ Formerly titled: Shorter versions appear in the following books: But the root of the matter is whether growing biomass for fuel can be made sustainable.
Since fossil fuels are finite, it certainly makes sense to turn to biomass to provide fuel to replace oil. After all, besides water, air, and dirt, plants are the most abundant and renewable resource that could possible scale up to replace fossil fuels. But is there enough biomass?
The Department of Energy lists ways biomass is already being used that will compete with its use as a fuel and for electricity generation Ruth Table 3. Since trucks and rail are the basis of civilization as we know it, all, most of this biomass ought to be converted to 2 diesel to keep trucks and locomotives running.
Currently biodiesel is just 1 percent of total diesel production by volume, with soybeans making up 57 percent of that feedstock. Oil is a biofuel, but nonrenewable since it took Mother Nature millions of years to brew withpounds of plants per gallon, which is equivalent to cramming 40 acres of wheat into your gas tank every 20 miles Dukes.
And therein lies the rub. It takes enormous amounts of biomass to make liquid fuels. To do that would require 15 billion metric tons of plant biomass taking up billion cubic meters bcm. But only 2 billion metric tons of rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, and other grains and oil seeds with a volume of 2.
In the United States all green plants collectively produce biomass equivalent to about 53 exajoules of energy per year from sunlight, only about half of our total fossil energy use.
The best, most productive land east of the Mississippi that can grow soybeans with rainfall. This would generate million tonnes of Dried Distillers Grain DDG byproduct, 10 times more than the entire consumption of high protein commercial feeds — 51 million tonnes in Pro-ethanol scientists add DDG as a positive net energy gain, when in fact it will take a huge amount of energy to dispose of most of this environmental pollution, only a small percent of which can be eaten by lifestock, and only carried so far or the diesel fuel used to transport it is larger than the energy contained in the DDG.
Just one of many silver bullets. But people argue endlessly about EROI because of the boundaries do you include the energy to make the tractor that planted the corn or not? The Dirt on Dirt. Ethanol is an agribusiness get-rich-quick scheme that will bankrupt our topsoil.
Nineteenth century western farmers converted their corn into whiskey to make a profit Rorabaugh The energy to haul moonshine is a tiny fraction of the energy to haul corn to distant cities after all, more of a positive EROI if you will. Archer Daniels Midland ADMa large grain processor, came up with a similar scheme in the 20th century; ethanol.
But ethanol was a product in search of a market, so ADM spent three decades relentlessly lobbying for ethanol to be used in gasoline.The beautiful land of the New World amazed the European explorers who arrived on North American shores around They realized the economic possibilities of the fertile soil .
Caught in that sensual music all neglect Monuments of unageing intellect. William Butler Yeats (–), "Sailing to Byzantium". Rome casts a long shadow. I am writing in the Latin alphabet.
I am using the Roman calendar, with its names of the months. Get the latest international news and world events from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and more. See world news photos and videos at barnweddingvt.com The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
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