Sanatana Dharma, "eternal religion," and Vaidika Dharma, "religion of the Vedas," and Hinduism -- the most commonly used name in North America. Various origins for the word "Hinduism" have been suggested: It may be derived from an ancient inscription translated as: It may be a Persian corruption of the word Sindhu the river Indus It was a name invented by the British administration in India during colonial times.
Since the announcement in February of the first successful cloning of a mammal Dolly the sheepseveral other species of mammals have been cloned. Although a cloned human child has yet to be born, and although the animal experiments have had low rates of success, the production of functioning mammalian cloned offspring suggests that the eventual cloning of humans must be considered a serious possibility.
In NovemberAmerican researchers claimed to have produced the first cloned human embryos, though they reportedly reached only a six-cell stage before they stopped dividing and died.
In addition, several fertility specialists, both here and abroad, have announced their intention to clone human beings. The United States Congress has twice taken up the matter, in and again inwith the House of Representatives in July passing a strict ban on all human cloning, including the production of cloned human embryos.
As of this writing, several cloning-related bills are under consideration in the Senate. Many other nations have banned human cloning, and the United Nations is considering an international convention on the subject. The debate over human cloning became further complicated in when researchers were able, for the first time, to isolate human embryonic stem cells.
Many scientists believe that these versatile cells, capable of becoming any type of cell in the body, hold great promise for understanding and treating many chronic diseases and conditions. Some scientists also believe that stem cells derived from cloned human embryos, produced explicitly for such research, might prove uniquely useful for studying many genetic diseases and devising novel therapies.
Public reaction to the prospect of cloning-for-biomedical-research has been mixed: What Is at Stake? The intense attention given to human cloning in both its potential uses, for reproduction as well as for research, An overview analysis of cloning suggests that people do not regard it as just another new technology.
Instead, we see it as something quite different, something that touches fundamental aspects of our humanity.
The notion of cloning raises issues about identity and individuality, the meaning of having children, the difference between procreation and manufacture, and the relationship between the generations.
It also raises new questions about the manipulation of some human beings for the benefit of others, the freedom and value of biomedical inquiry, our obligation to heal the sick and its limitsand the respect and protection owed to nascent human life. Finally, the legislative debates over human cloning raise large questions about the relationship between science and society, especially about whether society can or should exercise ethical and prudential control over biomedical technology and the conduct of biomedical research.
Rarely has such a seemingly small innovation raised such big questions.
We have attempted to consider human cloning both for producing children and for biomedical research within its larger human, technological, and ethical contexts, rather than to view it as an isolated technical development. We focus first on the broad human goods that it may serve as well as threaten, rather than on the immediate impact of the technique itself.
By our broad approach, our starting on the plane of human goods, and our open spirit of inquiry, we hope to contribute to a richer and deeper understanding of what human cloning means, how we should think about it, and what we should do about it.
On some matters discussed in this report, Members of the Council are not of one mind. Rather than bury these differences in search of a spurious consensus, we have sought to present all views fully and fairly, while recording our agreements as well as our genuine diversity of perspectives, including our differences on the final recommendations to be made.
By this means, we hope to help policymakers and the general public appreciate more thoroughly the difficulty of the issues and the competing goods that are at stake.
Fair and Accurate Terminology There is today much confusion about the terms used to discuss human cloning, regarding both the activity involved and the entities that result. The Council stresses the importance of striving not only for accuracy but also for fairness, especially because the choice of terms can decisively affect the way questions are posed, and hence how answers are given.
We have sought terminology that most accurately conveys the descriptive reality of the matter, in order that the moral arguments can then proceed on the merits.
We have resisted the temptation to solve the moral questions by artful redefinition or by denying to some morally crucial element a name that makes clear that there is a moral question to be faced. On the basis of 1 a careful analysis of the act of cloning, and its relation to the means by which it is accomplished and the purposes it may serve, and 2 an extensive critical examination of alternative terminologies, the Council has adopted the following definitions for the most important terms in the matter of human cloning: A form of reproduction in which offspring result not from the chance union of egg and sperm sexual reproduction but from the deliberate replication of the genetic makeup of another single individual asexual reproduction.
The asexual production of a new human organism that is, at all stages of development, genetically virtually identical to a currently existing or previously existing human being.
It would be accomplished by introducing the nuclear material of a human somatic cell donor into an oocyte egg whose own nucleus has been removed or inactivated, yielding a product that has a human genetic constitution virtually identical to the donor of the somatic cell.
This procedure is known as "somatic cell nuclear transfer," or SCNT. We have declined to use the terms "reproductive cloning" and "therapeutic cloning.On the basis of (1) a careful analysis of the act of cloning, and its relation to the means by which it is accomplished and the purposes it may serve, and (2) an extensive critical examination of alternative terminologies, the Council has adopted the following definitions for the most important terms in the matter of human cloning.
Cloning research encompasses three categories namely Plant, Animal and Man. Human Cloning has been a controversy and remains banned. Anyhow, results of Plant and Animal Cloning experiments lead to research promoting Human Cloning in the context of Human Healthcare.
Thomas Okarma, CEO of Geron Corp., launched this panel with an overview of regenerative medicine and distinguished between reproductive cloning and human embryonic stem cell research. He helped the audience understand the science behind the medical potential of embryonic stem cell research, with an explanation of the .
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Few avenues of scientific inquiry raise more thorny ethical questions than the cloning of human beings, a radical way to control our DNA. In August , in conjunction with his decision to permit limited federal funding for stem-cell research, President George W.
Bush created the President's Council on Bioethics to address the ethical ramifications of biomedical innovation. GenScript rare codon analysis tool reads your input protein coding DNA sequence (CDS) and calculate its organism related properties, like Codon Adaptation Index(CAI)， GC content and protein codons’ frequency distribution.
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