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A budget surplus developed during the Bill Clinton administrationand with the Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan 's support, Bush argued that the best use of the surplus was to lower taxes. After Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill expressed concerns over the tax cut's size and the possibility of future deficits, Vice President Cheney took charge of writing the bill, which the administration proposed to Congress in March The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of won the support of congressional Republicans and a minority of congressional Democrats, and Bush signed it into law in June The narrow Republican majority in the Senate necessitated the use of the reconciliationwhich in turn necessitated that the tax cuts would phase out in barring further legislative action.
After Republicans re-took control of the Senate during the mid-term elections, Bush proposed further tax cuts. That law also lowered the capital gains tax and taxes on dividends. Collectively, the Bush tax cuts reduced federal individual tax rates to their lowest level since World War IIand government revenue as a share of gross domestic product declined from Bush prepares for the State of the Union Address.
Bush's other major policy initiative upon taking office was education reforms. Although some congressional Republicans had called for abolishing the Department of Education, the President's success in campaigning on education reform had convinced many Republicans, including Congressman John Boehner of Ohio, that an education reform bill increasing federal funding would prove politically popular.
Bush proposed the No Child Left Behind Actwhich required extensive testing to ensure that schools met uniform standards for skills such as reading and math. Bush hoped that testing would make schools more accountable for their performances and provide parents more information in choosing which schools to send their children.
Kennedy shared Bush's concern for the education of impoverished children and hoped to increase federal funding for education, but he strongly opposed the president's proposed school voucherswhich would have allowed parents to use federal funding to pay for private schools.
Both men cooperated to pass the No Child Left Behind Actwhich dropped the concept of school vouchers but included Bush's idea of nationwide testing.
Both houses of Congress registered overwhelming approval for the bill's final version, which Bush signed into law in January The Clinton administration had issued guidelines allowing the federal funding of research utilizing stem cells, and the Bush administration studied the situation's ethics.
Evangelical religious groups argued that the research was immoral as it destroyed human embryoswhile various advocacy groups touted the "miracle possibilities" of stem cell research.
In AugustBush announced that he opposed stem cell research, and he banned federal funding for research on new stem cell lines.
However, Bush vetoed the second bill as well and Congress could not override the veto. After Congress passed a law creating the Department of Homeland SecurityRidge became the first director of the newly-creatly department.
The department was charged with overseeing immigration, border control, customs, and the newly-established Transportation Security Administration TSAwhich focused on airport security.
On October 26,Bush signed into law the Patriot Act. Passed on the President's request, this act permitted increased sharing of intelligence among the US Intelligence Community and authorized the government to examine the credit card bills and library records of suspected terrorists.
Bush also secretly authorized the National Security Agency to conduct warrantless surveillance of communications in and out of the US.
Climate change policy of the George W. Bush administration Cabinet meeting Bush's environmental record began with promises as a presidential candidate to clean up power plants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
In a speech on September 29,Bush pledged to commit two billion dollars to the funding of clean coal technology research.
In that same speech, he also promised to work with Congress, environmental groups, and the energy industry to reduce the emissions of sulfur dioxidenitrogen oxidemercuryand carbon dioxide into the environment within a "reasonable" period of time. He would later reverse his position on that specific campaign pledge in March in a letter to Nebraska Senator Chuck Hagelstating that carbon dioxide was not considered a pollutant under the Clean Air Actand that restricting carbon dioxide emissions would cause energy prices to rapidly increase.
Bush administration announced that it would not implement the Kyoto Protocolan international treaty signed in in Kyoto, Japan that required nations to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The administration argued that ratifying the treaty would unduly restrict U.
The intensity of greenhouse gases specifically is the ratio of greenhouse gas emissions and economic output i. Bush stated that this plan would prevent the release of million metric tons of greenhouse gases, which is about the equivalent of removing 70 million cars from the road.
This target would achieve this goal by providing tax credits to businesses that use renewable energy sources. Critics alleged that the administration  misinformed the public and did not do enough to reduce carbon emissions and deter global warming. The Pacific Ocean habitat includes the Mariana Trench and the waters and corals surrounding three uninhabited islands in the Northern Mariana IslandsRose Atoll in American Samoa, and seven islands along the equator.
In signing it, Bush stated that he thought the law would improve the financing system for elections but was "far from perfect.George Walker Bush was the 43rd President, serving from His administration had its hands full. First, there were two recessions, the second being the worst since the Great Depression.
Second, was the most damaging hurricane in U.S. history. Third, the administration faced the first. Bush became the first Republican president since the s to enjoy a majority in both houses of Congress. Among the initial domestic challenges that faced the Bush administration were a weakening national economy and an energy crisis in California.
AN OVERVIEW OF THE WAR ON TERRORISM. by Jim Marrs It has been reported that the Bush Administration was beginning to seriously consider support for a separate Palestinian state. Israel’s powerful and effective intelligence agency, the Mossad, is not beyond suspicion, according to the US Army’s School of Advanced Military Studies.
The economic policy of the George W. Bush administration was characterized by significant income tax cuts in and , the implementation of Medicare Part D in , increased military spending for two wars, Overview.
U.S. cumulative real (inflation-adjusted) GDP growth by President. Bush’s Foreign Policy. With the end of the Cold War, the Bush foreign policy team faced such radical and rapid global changes that the Department of State seemed capable only of reacting to events. Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives: A Brief Overview Updated November 26, presidential reorganization plan authority appeared to remain of interest to the Bush Administration, but no congressi onal action was taken in that regard.
Similarly, the Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives: A.