The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river systemlargely corresponding to modern-day Iraqnortheastern Syriasoutheastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Agesthe Renaissanceand the Enlightenmentas well as Christian culture. Alexander the Great In Homeric literature, and right up until the time of Alexander the Greatfor example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotuswe see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East. Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners.
Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s.
This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.
The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East.
The second is distance. The interactions of states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africathe Middle Eastand certain parts of Europe. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others' existence and thus another phase of globalization can occur.
The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity. If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other.
This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to work.
This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization. It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today.
Because it predated the Great Divergence of the nineteenth century, where Western Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic outputarchaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World centers such as GujaratBengalcoastal Chinaand Japan.
This archaic globalization existed during the Hellenistic Agewhen commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spainincluding Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities.
Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of importing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade. Trade in ancient Greece was largely unrestricted: Maize, tomato, potato, vanillarubber, cacaotobacco Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, Indian subcontinentPersiaEurope, and Arabiaopening long-distance political and economic interactions between them.
In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network.
Proto-globalization " Early modern -" or "proto-globalization" covers a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between and The concept of "proto-globalization" was first introduced by historians A.
Hopkins and Christopher Bayly. The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high "modern globalization" in the late 19th century.
In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India Company founded in and the Dutch East India Company founded inoften described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered were established.
The period is marked by such trade arrangements as the East India Companythe shift of hegemony to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations such as the Thirty Years' Warand the rise of newfound commodities—most particularly slave trade. The Triangular Trade made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the Western Hemisphere.
The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops, and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred W. Crosby 's concept of the Columbian Exchange also played a central role in this process. European, MuslimIndian, Southeast Asianand Chinese merchants were all involved in early modern trade and communications, particularly in the Indian Ocean region.
During the early 19th century the United Kingdom was a global superpower. Modern[ edit ] According to economic historians Kevin H.Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.
A True Culture Shock - The United States is a continent with a diverse existing population today; this country is known as a melting pot of different cultures, each one unique in its own respect. Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments barnweddingvt.comization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology.
With increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and barnweddingvt.comization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that.
Yesterday I wrote about the trailer for JK Rowling’s new multi-part background pieces on Pottermore, entitled “Magic in North America.” You should read the post here if you need barnweddingvt.com before that, back in June, I wrote about my concerns with the bringing of the “magic universe” to the States.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
Indigenous Fijians are descended from the Lapita peoples, a seafaring group from eastern Indonesia or the Philippines who probably arrived in the Fiji Islands during the second millennium B.C.E. and later interbred first with Melanesians from the west and subsequently with Polynesians (also Lapita descendants) from the east.
School of Culture and Communication graduate research career profiles. Our graduate researchers pursue academic careers and also use their skills to shape careers in other fields.