Introduction[ edit ] In the s, colonies were accidentally introduced into the United States through the seaport of Mobile, Alabama. Despite earlier views that cargo ships from Brazil docking at Mobile unloaded goods infested with the ants,  recent DNA research confirmed that the likely source population for all invasive S.
Page 22 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Insect-Pest Management and Control. The National Academies Press. CHAPTER 2 Identification and Classification An insect pest is a biological species or population thereofand entomologists should understand what this means in terms of pest management and control.
Insect classification provides a framework within which all knowledge re- garding each species may be recorded. To the extent that the classification reflects genetic relationships, it permits useful generalizations and contains a high degree of predictability regarding pest species and their ultimate control.
This predictability becomes more important as pest control becomes more complex. In order to retrieve reliable data from the classification, or to utilize its predictability, the classification must be accurate.
Thus, correct identification of a pest species is the first step in scientific pest control. It provides a key to published information on the life history, behavior, and ecology of the insects, and to other data important in the development of control measures.
When adequate published data regarding a particular pest species do not exist, the identification may furnish useful information through leads derived from published data on related species. Correct identification is also an essential element of plant-quarantine enforcement, exploration for foreign parasites and predators, search for insect resistance in crop varieties or animal breeds, and selective control procedures of all kinds.
Initial taxonomic identification of pest species should be made by special- ists in taxonomy. Where sibling species, genetic strains, and biotypes involve pest species or their natural enemies, precise identification of these may be required in connection with control programs.
In such cases, identifications should be made by laboratory or field biologists familiar with the physio- logical, behavioral, ecological, or genetic characteristics of the populations concerned.
Some suggestions for automated approaches to these problems are given later in this chapter. Only a brief discussion can be included here; for fuller treatment the interested reader is referred to recent general works on evolution appearing in the bibliography at the end of this chapter.
While the higher categories of the familiar biological classifi- cation e. Modern systematics stresses the importance of the reproductive relationships among the individuals of a species rather than their anatomical similarities alone. This emphasis stems from the fact that the transmission of the genetic material through reproduction provides the only continuity between organisms in time and in evolution.
The factors influencing the transmission of genetic material are therefore of interest in understanding the process of evolution and in scientific control of pests. Most of our knowledge concerning the genetics of populations has been deduced from the Mendelian laws of heredity.
These laws apply only to sexually reproducing organisms or "Mendelian" populations. Each gene may exist in one of several states or alleles. The relative frequency of a given allele in a Mendelian population may be computed, and predictions may be made about the frequency to be expected in subsequent generations under specified circumstances.
One important deduction is that in the absence of certain modifying forces, the original frequencies of the genes in a large population can be expected to remain virtually unchanged in generation after generation.
Changes in gene frequency in a large population may be expected if some of the genes in question mutate to another allele, some individuals possessing the gene are removed by natural selection before reproducing; or some of the individuals possessing the gene migrate from the population, or additional individuals migrate to the population.
When a population is dis- tributed over an ecologically diverse region, the joint action of these modi- fying forces in each different situation leads to unique frequencies of many different genes within each area.
Furthermore, the exchange of genes between adjacent populations may be slightly to entirely reduced by physical or biological barriers. Populations thus isolated may be expected to become increasingly distinct and may or may not interbreed with adjacent populations if contact is re-established.
Failure to interbreed with adjacent populations is the criterion by which species are defined in theory.
A bio- logical species is formed by groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups or by the largest and most inclusive reproductive community of sexual and cross-fertilizing individuals which share in a common gene pool.
The significance of these rudiments of the theory of population genetics may now be examined. First, it should be clear that the reproductive rela- tionships of a species can rarely be determined in practice. Other lines of evidence similarity in anatomy, physiology, and behavior; and geographic continuity must be used by the systematist to infer interbreeding unless actual field and laboratory information is available.
Conclusions drawn from inferences alone may overlook populations similar or identical in characteristics but reproductively isolated even when in contact. Such popu- lations are called sibling species.PepsiCo is a global food and beverage corporation based in New York.
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Diatomaceous earth (/ ˌ d aɪ. ə t ə ˌ m eɪ ʃ ə s ˈ ɜːr θ /) – also known as D.E., diatomite, or kieselgur/kieselguhr – is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder.
It has a particle size ranging from less than 3 μm to more than 1 mm, but typically 10 to μm. Depending on the granularity, this.