For five hundred years — roughly the middle ages in Europe — Turkic and Tatar tribes traded rule of Crimea. She proceeded to parcel out land to aristocrats and build classical-style palaces and gardens. Bythe Crimean Tatars, once the majority, had been halved by wars and campaigns of Russification. Their population was halved again inand shortly after that, Stalin forcibly deported most of the remaining Tatars to central Asia.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Detached from the rest of the country, the city is an exclave of the Russian Federation. Kaliningrad lies on the Pregolya River just upstream from Frisches Lagoon. Formerly the capital of the dukes of Prussia and later the capital of East Prussiathe city was ceded to the Soviet Union in under the Potsdam agreement.
Its first site was near the fishing town of Steindamm, but, after its destruction by the Prussians init was rebuilt near where the city now stands.
From it was the residence of the grand master of the Teutonic Knights, and from until the residence of the dukes of Prussia.
Under Prussia and then Germany the town was, after Kielthe main naval base on the Baltic Sea and a key to the defense of the eastern frontier. Its modern fortifications were begun in and completed in Among its famous professors were Immanuel Kant who was born in the city inJ. Besseland J.
The university disappeared with the Soviet takeover, but a new University of Kaliningrad was founded in The city was besieged by the Russians unsuccessfully during World War I.
Left in ruins were the 14th-century cathedral, the grand castle begun by the Teutonic Knights, and the old university.
The entire German population was evicted in and settled in West and East Germany. Hundreds of thousands of new settlers, primarily from Russia and Belaruswere recruited to live in the city, helping transform the urban landscape into a mosaic of old German buildings and landmarks—including the grave site of philosopher Immanuel Kanta monument to dramatist and poet Friedrich Schillerand several Gothic cathedrals—and Soviet developments, such as multistory apartment buildings constructed in the decades after World War II.
The city was closed to foreigners until A significant share of the local population is involved in shuttle trade of clothing and footwear purchased in Poland. The city has fishing, engineering, lumber, machinery, and papermaking industries.
To stimulate investment in Kaliningrad, a special economic zone that exempts from customs duties most imported and exported goods was established there. Transit traffic between the Kaliningrad exclave and the rest of Russia is conducted via Lithuania and Belarus.Interest Rate in Russia averaged percent from until , reaching an all time high of 17 percent in December of and a record low of 5 percent in June of In Russia, interest rate decisions are taken by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.
From September 16th of , the official interest rate is the one-week auction. Peter the Great: an odd duck Peter saw Russia's limited access to the ocean as one of its greatest weaknesses, and though it meant tens of thousands of dead serfs to build a city on a unforgiving. Russia's Deadly Su The Plane That Terrifies NATO (and Buzzes Its Fighter Jets) From Russia with love.
Russia and Its Islamic World: From the Mongol Conquest to The Syrian Military Intervention [Robert Service] on barnweddingvt.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Russia has long played an influential part in its world of Islam, and not all the dimensions are as widely understood as they ought to be.
In Russia and Its Islamic World. The name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated mostly by the East barnweddingvt.comr, this proper name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля" (russkaja zemlja), which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'".
Status What Russia Is Saying About Its Megaton Nuclear Torpedo.
The new Russian underwater doomsday weapon Status-6 is a fitting symbol of the New Cold War and its senselessness.