However, this ebook will answer that question in a more complicated way.
The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks. The rise of information science in the middle fifties is a testimony of this.
For a science like information science IS it is of course important how its fundamental terms are defined, and in IS as in other fields the problem of how to define information is often raised.
This review is an attempt to overview the present status of the information concept in IS with a view also to interdisciplinary trends. In scientific discourses theoretical concepts are not true or false elements or pictures of some part of reality, but are constructions designed to do a job the best possible way.
Different conceptions of fundamental terms like information are thus more or less fruitful depending on what theories and in the end what practical actions they are expected to support. In Chapter 1, we discuss the problems of defining terms in the light of the philosophy of science.
The history of a word tells us mostly only anecdotes that are peripheral to the concept itself. But in our case the use of the word information points to a specific perspective under which the concept of knowledge communication was defined and designated.
We explore this history in Chapter 2 and we believe that our results may help to better understand the complexity of this concept also with regard to its scientific definitions.
The discussions about the information concept in other disciplines are also very important for Information Science because many theories and approaches in Information Science have their origins in other disciplines.
This is surveyed in Chapter 3. The epistemological concept of information has lead also to a new perspective of non-human information processes particularly in physics and biology. This can be illustrated also in physical terms with regard to release mechanisms as we suggest at the end of Chapter 3.
Our overview of the concept of information in the natural sciences as well as in the humanities and social sciences does not aim at exploring different theories in depth.
In most cases we can only refer to fragments of theories that the user may interpret within her own background or follow the hints of the bibliography.
Readers mostly interested in information science may get more satisfied with Chapter 4 where we bring a more detailed explanation of diverse views and theories of information within our field, supplementing the ARIST article by Cornelius We show that the introduction of the concept of information about to what was formerly special librarianship and documentation in itself has had serious consequences for the kind of knowledge and theories developed in our field.
The important question is not only what meaning we give to the term in Information Science, but also how it relates to other basic terms such as documents, texts and knowledge.
The development and widespread use of computer networks since the end of World War II, and the emergence of information science as a discipline in the s, are evidence of this focus.
Although knowledge and its communication are basic phenomena of every human society, it is the rise of information technology and its global impacts that characterize ours as as an information society. It is commonplace to consider information as a basic condition for economic development together with capital, labor, and raw material; but what makes information especially significant at present is its digital nature.
The impact of information technology on the natural and social sciences has made this everyday notion a highly controversial concept. Claude Shannon's "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is a landmark work, referring to the common use of information with its semantic and pragmatic dimensions, while at the same redefining the concept within an engineering framework.
The fact that the concept of knowledge communication has been designated with the word information seems, prima facie, a linguistic happenstance. For a science like information science IS it is of course important how fundamental terms are defined; and in IS, as in other fields, the question of how to define information is often raised.
This chapter is an attempt to review the status of the concept of information in IS, with reference also to interdisciplinary trends. In scientific discourse, theoretical concepts are not true or false elements or glimpses of some element of reality; rather, they are constructions designed to do a job the best possible way.
Different conceptions of fundamental terms like information are thus more or less fruitful, depending on the theories and in the end, the practical actions they are expected to support.
In the opening section, we discuss the problem of defining terms from the perspective of the philosophy of science. The history of a word provides us with anecdotes that are tangential to the concept itself. But in our case, the use of the word information points to a specific perspective from which the concept of knowledge communication has been defined.
This perspective includes such characteristics as novelty and relevance; i. This discussion leads to the questions of why and when this meaning was designated with the word information. We explore this history, and we believe that our results may help readers better understand the complexity of the concept with regard to its scientific definitions.
Discussions about the concept of information in other disciplines are very important for IS because many theories and approaches in IS have their origins elsewhere see the section "Information as an Interdisciplinary concept" in this chapter.
The epistemological concept of information brings into play nonhuman information processes, particularly in physics and biology. This concept can be illustrated also in physical terms with regard to release mechanisms, as we suggest. Our overview of the concept of information in the natural sciences as well as in the humanities and social sciences cannot hope to be comprehensive.
In most cases, we can only refer to fragments of theories. However, the reader may wish to follow the leads provided in the bibliography. Readers interested primarily in information science may derive most benefit from the section on "Information in Information Science," in which we offer a detailed explanation of diverse views and theories of information within our field; supplementing the recent ARIST chapter by Cornelius We show that the introduction of the concept of information circa to the domain of special librarianship and documentation has in itself had serious consequences for the types of knowledge and theories developed in our field.Mathematics Itself: Formatics - On the Nature, Origin, and Fabrication of Structure and Function in Logic and Mathematics.
Yet faith in false precision seems to us to be one of the many imperfections our species is cursed with. The concept of the nuclear family emotional system describes four basic relationship patterns that govern where problems develop in a family.
People’s attitudes and beliefs about relationships play a role in the patterns, but the forces primarily driving them are part of the emotional system. The United States federal government is divided into three branches, separating government’s principal powers among different actors.
The Constitution defines the powers of each branch. Article I defines the legislative, or congress. Article II defines the executive, or presidency. The concept of information as we use it in everyday English in the sense knowledge communicated plays a central role in today's society.
The concept became particularly predominant since end of World War II with the widespread use of computer networks. We see some of this conceptual uncertainty in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive barnweddingvt.com book was written in by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues to classify and clarify the range of possible intellectual objectives, from the cognitively easy to the difficult; it was meant to classify degrees of understanding, in effect.
Formative assessment, including diagnostic testing, is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures conducted by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment. It typically involves qualitative feedback (rather than scores) for both student and teacher that focuses on the details of content and performance.