Top of Page Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected2 typical size weight, length, etc3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor.
References In this article I provide guidelines for writing in scientific style, starting with the detail of punctuation and working up through to the whole document. The guidelines are based on material presented in the publication manual of the American Psychological Association I indicate departures from APA style in brackets, thus: You can access the APA manual and related material via the links provided by Dewey This article also defines the general style for articles published at the Sportscience website.
Intending contributors should use this article in conjunction with the appropriate template downloaded from the Sportscience site.
Some of writing a journal article summary format material in the templates is duplicated here. Use a colon to introduce an explanation or an example of something: If there are several simple explanations or examples, separate them with commas; otherwise, use semicolons.
Avoid excessive use of parentheses. Use them to make an aside an extra remark only if commas could be confusing. Never use parentheses within parentheses: Use brackets [ ] for material inserted into a quotation and ellipsis three dots for material omitted: According to Smith"few such [descriptive] studies were done… before Use one or two spaces after a period, colon, or semicolon.
Note, though, that Web browsers delete more than one space unless you make them non-breaking spaces.
Use double quotation marks " for speech and verbatim quotations. If a quotation is long, type it as an indented block of text without quotation marks, as shown in this example: According to Smith The "newbie effect" disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner.
Examples of methods included indirect observation, self-reports, and retrospective questionnaires. Don't use "smart quotes" 66 and 99because they create problems when translated into Web documents.
Use single quotation marks ' for quotes within quotes. Use the apostrophe ' to denote possession: Put commas, semicolons, colons, and periods outside closing quotation marks: Use Title Case initial upper-case letters for words of four or more letters in: If you wrote a clear cut case, you would imply a cut case that was clear.
The emphasis in pronunciation also provides a clue. Hyphenation is not necessary if the first word is an adverb or comparative adjective according to APA, anyway: Avoid italic bold, which does not always show up as bold in some browsers. For example, items on the 5-point scale ranged from not at all to always.
Put the title of a paper, book, or journal in italics in the body of the text. In the reference list, titles of papers are in normal case.
Put subheadings in Bold Title Case. Do not use italics for foreign words and abbreviations common in scientific English, such as ad lib, per se, et al. Choose the normal text font to get these symbols: Make a non-breaking space in Word documents with option-spacebar on a Mac, and with control-shift-spacebar in Word on a PC.
Macintosh users can also produce the following limited set of symbols by use of shift, option and command keys: Do not attempt to produce any other symbols using shift, command or option keys, because the symbols do not transfer to Web documents via Word.
Use the following well-known Latin abbreviations only within parentheses: Do not use the abbreviations for namely viz. Use abbreviations without explanation for the following terms in the Summary, but define them in the Methods:MLA format or style is the second most used international standard for writing academic papers.
This page summarizes MLA format rules for: MLA paper layout, MLA in-text citations, and MLA works cited. How to Write an Article Review How to Write an Article Review. Sep 07, Types of Academic Writing. An Article Review is a critical, constructive evaluation of literature in a particular field through summary, classification, analysis, and comparison.
Journal Article: Author [last name], A.A [first and middle initial]. (Publication. The article summary must be in this exact format with these headings (underlined in above box).
REMINDER: Any information which is word for word from the article, must be in quotation marks with the page number identified, . Writing the Summary: When writing the summary there are three main requirements: 1. The summary should cover the original as a whole.
2. The material should be presented in a neutral fashion. An article is a written work published in a print or electronic medium. It may be for the purpose of propagating news, research results, academic analysis, or debate.
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